Common Unix Commands

 

Unix Commands
Sysinfo Display system information i.e cpu, memory, etc
Memory and Swap Information regarding the physical memory and swap area
Disks, Filesystems and Devices Displaying disk information, filesystems
Networking Display and configuring network parameters
Crash Dump Configure, display and use the crash dump utiltities
Performance Monitoring and Diagnostics List, Monitor and trace processes
Kernel Modules and Parameters Displaying, modifying and tuning kernel parameters
Services Display, start and stop services
Patching / Packages Installing and removing patches and software packages
Accounts Setting up and removing user accounts
NFS Information on NFS i.e starting, stopping, etc
NTP Network Time Protocol
Log Files Location to common log files
Security Security information
Misc Other stuff i.e shutdown, timezone, run level, etc

sysinfo

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP-UX
AIX
 
Server Release info cat /etc/release cat /etc/enterprise-release
cat /etc/redhat-release

lsb_release -a

cat /proc/version

cat /etc/lsb-release

lsb_release -a
/stand/kernrel

 

oslevel -r

Server Release info
Server type /usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v dmidecode dmidecode

model
uname -a

prtconf | grep -i 'System Model' Server type
Hardware Info

prtdiag -v
prtconf -D
prtpicl -v [-c <class>]

picl = platform information and control library

lspci
lsusb
lshal

Note: hal = hardware abstraction layer

lspci
lsusb
lshal

ioscan
ioscan -fun [disk|tape|lan]

/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info

lscfg -v
lscfg -l ent0
lscfg -vl fcs0 (find the WWN of HBA adapter)

lsdev
lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0

lsslot -c [pci|phb|port]
lsslot -c pci -l ent0

lspath -l hdisk0

diag

Hardware Info
Operating System uname -a uname -a uname -a uname -a oslevel [-r|-s] Operating System
Memory /usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
prtconf | grep -i mem

cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om

cat /proc/slabinfo

cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om

cat /proc/slabinfo

dmesg | grep -i physical
/usr/sam/lbin/getmem
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest

cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info

prtconf -m
prtconf |grep -i memory
lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem
bootinfo -r
Memory
CPU (type, number, etc)

/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v

## display,offline,online
psrinfo
psradm -f 0 (offline)
psradm -n 0 (online)

cat /proc/cpuinfo (detailed) cat /proc/cpuinfo (detailed)

/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
sam -> performance monitors -> system properties

cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info

prtconf |grep -i processor CPU (type, number, etc)
Disk Drives

format
prtvtoc <device>

format -e (to convert EFI (zfs) to SMI)

Note:
EFI - Extensible Firmware Interface
SMI - Sun Microsystems Inc

fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe -s <device>

smartctl -a <device>
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>
ioscan -funC disk lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0 (specific controller)
lsdev -Cc disk -S [a|d|s] (available, defined, stopped)

lscfg -v -l hdisk0
Disk Drives
Kernel File and associated directories

/kernel/genunix

/platform/`uname -m`/kernel
/platform/i86pc/kernel
/kernel
/usr/kernel

/boot/initrd.?????.img
/boot/vmlinuz
/boot/initrd.img-?????-server
/boot/vmlinuz-????-server
/stand/vmunix /unix

/usr/lib/boot
/usr/lib/drivers

Note: /unix - symbolic link to kernel file i.e /usr/lib/boot/unix_64
Kernel File
Kernel 32 or 64 isainfo -kv (solaris 9+)
isalist (sparc v9 will be listed first)
isainfo -b
uname -a
uname -m
getconf -a |grep -i 'long_bit'
cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -m
getconf -a |grep -i 'long_bit'

getconf KERNEL_BITS ( version 11)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest |grep -i 'os mode'

HPUX < version 11 all 32 bit

Note: determine if system supports 64 bit
getconf HW_CPU_SUPP_BITS
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest |grep -i 'hw capability'

 

prtconf -k
bootinfo -K
Kernel 32 or 64
Display Firmware At the OK prompt type banner boot into the BIOS (normally F2 or F12) boot into the BIOS (normally F2 or F12)

workstations:
reboot
enter PDC
type: IN (information menu)
type: FV (Firmware Version)

prtconf |grep -i firmware
lscfg -pv
invscout
Display Firmware
Display IRQ, IO ports and DMA n/a /proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
/proc/dma
/proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
/proc/dma
n/a prtconf Display IRQ, IO ports and DMA
GUI admin tool admintool linuxconf linuxconf sam smit
smitty
GUI admin tool


Memory and Swap

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Memory /usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
prtconf | grep -i mem
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om

dmesg | grep -i physical
/usr/sam/lbin/getmem
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest

cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info

prtconf -m
prtconf |grep -i memory
lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem
bootinfo -r
Memory
page size (memory) /usr/bin/pagesize /usr/bin/getconf -a| egrep -i 'pagesize|page_size' /usr/bin/getconf -a| egrep -i 'pagesize|page_size' dmesg |grep -i physical pagesize
pagesize -a (display all supported pagesizes)
page size (memory)
display swap swap -l
swap -s
cat /proc/swaps (detailed)
swapon -s
cat /proc/swaps (detailed)
swapon -s
swapinfo (displayed in KB)
swapinfo -m (display in Mb)
swapinfo -tm (total / Mb)
lsps -a (detailed)
lsps -s
display swap
adding swap

mkfile 5m /var/swapfile
swap -a /var/swapfile

update /etc/vfstab

device:
create partition with fdisk (type 82)
file(create 50MB swap file):
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swapfile bs=1024 count=50000

mkswap <device>|<file>
swapon <device>|<file>

update /etc/fstab

device:
create partition with fdisk (type 82)
file(create 50MB swap file):
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swapfile bs=1024 count=50000

mkswap <device>|<file>
swapon <device>|<file>

update /etc/fstab
Create logical volume or filesystem

swapon <device> | -f <logical device>
swapon -p 3 <device> | -f <logical device>

update /etc/fstab

Note: -p = priority swap number . The nswapdev tunable system parameter controls the maximum number of swap devices.
mkps -a -s 4 -n <volume group>

# change the attributes
chps -a n paging00 (don't use after restart)

# change the logical volume attributes (name in this case)
chlv -n <new name> <old old> (chang page space name)

Note:

-a reconfigure paging space after restart
-s size of the page space (logical partitions)
-n activiates the paging space (use swapoff to deactivate)

also see /etc/swapspaces file
adding swap
removing swap update /etc/vfstab
swap -d
swapoff <device>|<file>

Remove device or file as normal
swapoff <device>|<file>

Remove device or file as normal
remove entry from /etc/fstab
reboot
swapoff /dev/paging00
rmps paging00

Note: paging space must be deactiviated before removing
removing swap

Disks, Filesystems and Devices

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Disk Drives

format
prtvtoc <device>
cfgadm -al
fcinfo hba-port
luxadm probe
mpathadm list initiator-port
mpathadm show <initiator-port name>
iscsiadm list initiator-node
iscsiadm list discovery

format -e (to convert EFI (zfs) to SMI)

Note:
EFI - Extensible Firmware Interface
SMI - Sun Microsystems Inc

fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>

udevadm info -q all -n /dev/sda1
blkid
dmsetup [ls|info]

fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>
ioscan -funC disk lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0 (specific controller)
lsdev -Cc disk -S [a|d|s] (available, defined,stopped)

lscfg -v -l hdisk0
Disk Drives
Disk serial Number, type, etc format
iostat -En
luxadm inq <disk> (A5x00 disk arrays)
hdparm -i /dev/hda
hdparm -I /dev/hda (detailed)

hdparm -Tt /dev/hda (speed test)

sdparm -i /dev/sdb

cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/model
cat /proc/scsi/scsi
hdparm -i /dev/hda
hdparm -I /dev/hda (detailed)

haparm -Tt /dev/hda (speed test)

sdparm -i /dev/sdb

cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/model
cat /proc/scsi/scsi

diskinfo -v /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0 (detailed but no serial number)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest (no serial number)

## Insure that the online diagnostic support tools have been installed
swlist -l bundle | grep 'Support Tools'

## Command-Line Support Tools Manager (cstm)
## The run cstm
cstm
cstm> map
cstm> sel dev 4       (select the disk of you choice)
cstm> info
cstm> il                  (obtain the serial number)
cstm> quit

lscfg -vl hdisk0
lscfg -vl hdisk*
Disk serial Number, type, etc
Disk disk partitions prtvtoc <device>

cat /etc/vfstab

fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)

cat /proc/partitions (very high level)
cat /etc/fstab

 

fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)

cat /proc/partitions (very high level)
cat /etc/fstab

lvlnboot -v /dev/vg00
lifls -Clv <device>

# Display the LIF contents
lifcp /dev/dsk/c0t6d0:AUTO -

cat /etc/fstab

Note: Boot programs are stored in the boot area in Logical Interchange Format (LIF), which is similar to a file system. For a device to be bootable, the LIF volume on that device must contain at least the ISL
(the initial system loader) and HPUX (the HP-UX bootstrap utility) LIF files. ISL is like GRUB.

lsvg -l rootvg
lchangelv

cat /etc/filesystems

Disk disk partitions
List Raw Partitions use format to partition the disk then just use the slice as a raw partition, remember to use the character device

## Old way
/etc/sysconfig/rawdevices
service rawdevices start
chkconfig rawdevices on

## New way, Edit below file
/etc/udev/rules.d/60-raw.rules
udevinfo -d or udevadm info

## Display raw partitions
raw -qa

mknod /dev/rawctl c 162 0
mknod /dev/raw/raw0 c 162 1
mknod /dev/raw/raw1 c 162 2
ln -s /dev/rawctl /dev/raw/rawctl

## map raw devices to the disk
raw /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sdb1

## display raw devices
raw -qa
Just create a new LVOL without a filesystem - that's it.

Just create a new LVOL without a filesystem

# create a raw volume
mklv -y rawVolume vg01 10

 

List Raw Partitions
Bad Blocks format (use analyse ) badblocks badblocks dd if=/dev/rdsk/cXtYd0 of=/dev/null bs=1024K

Note: no errors means disk is good
chlv -b [y|n] <lv>

Note: enables bad block relocation
 
Filesystem commands df -k
df -h
df -k
df -h
df -k
df -h
bdf
df [-egiklnvfb]
df -k
lsfs [<filesystem>]
lsfs -q <filesystem> (detailed)
Filesystem commands
Filesystem (create|remove) newfs -v <raw device>

# Display how the filesystem was created
newfs -Nv <filesystem>

mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs -t ext4 /dev/sdb1

# all point to mke2fs
mkfs.ext2
mkfs.ext3
mkfs.ext4

cat /etc/mke2fs.conf

mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1 newfs -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/rlvol1

mkfs -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/rlvol1

Note: mkfs and newfs are a pointer to /sbin/fs_wrapper

crfs -v jfs2 -d data02lv -m /data02 -A yes

-v filesystem type
-d device or logical volume
-m mountpoint
-A mount after restart [yes|no]

rmfs -ri /data02

-r remove the mountpoint
-i display warning before removing

chfs -a size=+1G /var (grow by additional 1GB)
chfs -a size=1G /var (grow to 1GB in size)

Filesystem (create|remove|resize)
Tune Filesystems tunefs
fstyp -v <device> |grep -i minfree

tune2fs
tune2fs -l /dev/sda1

# change reserved blocks percentage to 1%
tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sda1

tune2fs
tune2fs -l /dev/sda1

# change reserved blocks percentage to 1%
tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sda1

tunefs -v <filesystem>
vxtunefs -v <filesystem>
fstyp -v <filesystem>

# Disk fragmentation
fsadm -F vxfs -E / (report)
fsadm -F vxfs -e / (defrag)
chfs

Note: you can perform the following
resize
freeze
change mountpoint
permissions
lots more..............................
Tune Filesystems
Force fsck



# Check to see filesystem needs checking
fstyp -v <filesystem> | grep fsclean

touch /forcefsck
shutdown -Fr now
fsck.mode=force (kernel parameter)


tune2fs -l /dev/sdb<?> |grep -i 'filesystem state'

touch /forcefsck
shutdown -r now


tune2fs -l /dev/sdb<?> |grep -i 'filesystem state'

# edit /etc/default/rcS change below so
# you dont have to hang around
FSCKFIX=yes

 

 

# Look at the second line to see if a filesystem
# needs checking
tunefs -v <filesystem>

n/a Force fsck
backup filesystem ufsdump|ufsrestore
tar
dd
cpio
dump/restore
tar
dd
cpio
dump/restore
tar
dd
cpio
fbackup/frecover
dump/restore
ftio
tar
dd
cpio
backup|restore
tar
dd
cpio
backup filesystem
Display the boot device eeprom |grep boot-device
prtconf -pv |grep bootpath
prtpicl -v|grep ':bootpath'

cat /boot/grub/grub.conf
cat /etc/lilo.conf

grub = grand unified boot loader
lilo = linux loader

cat /boot/grub/menu.lst setboot bootinfo -b (display last boot device)
bootlist -m [normal|service] -o (display bootable devices)
Display the boot device
Setting the boot device setenv boot-device [<device>|<alias>]
eeprom boot-device [<device>|<alias>]

/boot/grub/grub.conf
/etc/lilo.conf

 

/boot/grub/menu.lst setboot -p <primary path>
setboot -a <alternate path>

# autoboot sequnce
setboot -b [on|off]
bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1 Setting the boot device
Creating boot device (MBR) installboot /usr/platform/`uname -i`/lib/fs/ufs/bootblk <raw-device> grub-install <raw-device>
lilo -v
grub-install <raw-device> mkboot -l <device>

Note: we are treating the disk as a LVM device
bosboot -a (uses default device)
bosboot -ad hdisk1
Creating boot device (MBR)
Format floppy drive fdformat -v -U
volcheck -v
newfs -v /vol/disk/aliases/floppy0
floppy --probe (use device obtained below )
floppy --createrc > /etc/fd0
floppy --format /dev/fd0
mkfs /dev/fd0
n/a n/a format -d /dev/rfd0
format -d /dev/fd0.18 (high format)
Format floppy drive
mount/unmount floppy volrmmount -l floppy0
eject floppy
mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
umount /mnt/floppy
n/a n/a mount /dev/rfd0 /floppy mount/unmount floppy
mount/unmount CDROM mount -F hsfs -o ro <device path> /cdrom/cdrom0
umount /cdrom/cdrom0

/etc/init.d/volmgr start
eject cdrom

mount -rt iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
umount /mnt/cdrom
eject cdrom

mount -rt iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
umount /mnt/cdrom
eject cdrom

mount -rF cdfs /dev/dsk/c1t6d0 /cdrom

start: /usr/sbin/pps_mountd
pps_mount

mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 /cdrom
umount /cdrom
mount/unmount CDROM
mount/umount ISO image

lofiadm -a <iso image> /dev/lofi/1
mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/lofi/1 /mnt

# to list
lofiadm

         
remount a filesystem n/a mount -o remount,rw / mount -o remount,rw / mount_vxfs -o remount,ro <filesystem>

mount -o remount,rw <filesystem>

Note:I did find a note that it should be possible to remount a jfs2 filesystem, but it did not work on my system

remount a filesystem
create boot disk or recovery tape n/a mkbootdisk `uname -r` (boot diskette) n/a recovery tape (preview)
make_tape_recovery -v -l -x inc_entire=vg00
/opt/ignite/bin/make_recovery -ACv
mksysb create boot disk or recovery tape
boot cdrom/diskette (single user) ok> boot cdrom -s using the grub window append the word single to the kernel line using the grub window append the word single to the kernel line enter PDC
> search
>boot p1 (cdrom)
interact with IPL? Y
ISL> hpux -is
based on a 9114-275 workstation
  1. Restart the machine.
  2. Wait the the AIX splash screen to come up. Devices begin to initialize here.
  3. When you see the [keyboard] word on screen hit the F5 button or the 5 key depending on your console.
  4. Choose “default boot list ” when the maintenance screen comes up.
boot cdrom/diskette (single user)
boot into maintenace mode ok> boot -as f10 or f12 f10 or f12 >boot pri
interact with IPL? Y
ISL> hpux -lm
based on a 9114-275 workstation
  1. Restart the machine.
  2. Wait the the AIX splash screen to come up. Devices begin to initialize here.
  3. When you see the [keyboard] word on screen hit the F5 button or the 5 key depending on your console.
  4. Choose “select boot options ” when the maintenance screen comes up, then option 1, then option 1 for scsi, then option 3 service mode boot
boot into maintenace mode
Device paths floppy:

disk:
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0

tape:
/dev/rmt/0ucb

cdrom:
/dev/dsk/c0t6d0s0
/dev/scd0 (external usb cd)

floppy:
/dev/fd0

disk:
/dev/hda or /dev/sda
/dev/hdb or /dev/sdb

tape:

cdrom:
/dev/hda (depends on number of IDE disks)

floppy:
/dev/fd0

disk:
/dev/hda or /dev/sda
/dev/hdb or /dev/sdb

tape:

cdrom:
/dev/hda (depends on number of IDE disks)

floppy:
n/a

disk:
/dev/dsk/c0t6d0

tape:
/dev/dsk/rmt/0

cdrom:
/dev/dsk/c1t6d0

floppy:
/dev/fd0
/dev/rfd0

disk:
/dev/hdisk0

tape:

cdrom:
/dev/cd0

Device paths
update /dev directory drvconfig
devlinks
disks|tapes|ports

devfsadm ( solaris 8, 9, 10)
/dev/MAKEDEV <device> /dev/MAKEDEV <device>

insf -C tape (Class)

insf -H 0.1.0 -e (recreate deleted link)

cfgmgr
cfgmgr -l scsi0

mkdev

update /dev directory
remove or change a device rem_drv     # remove all devices from a hardward path
rmsf -k -H 52.6.0
rmdev
rmdev -l cd0

chdev
chdev -l rmt0 -a ret=no
remove or change a device
list device drivers prtconf -D
sysdef
cat /proc/devices cat /proc/devices lsdev

lsdev
lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0

lsslot -c pci -l ent0

lscfg
lscfg -l ent0
lscfg -vl fcs0 (find the WWN of HBA adapter)

lspath -l hdisk0

getconf DISK_SIZE hdisk1 (detailed)

list device drivers

Networking

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Basic network information
  (hostname, ip address)
/etc/hostname.hme0 /etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
/etc/network/interfaces /etc/rc.config.d/netconf stores information in the ODM (Object Database Manager) Basic network information
  (hostname, ip address)
displaying network interfaces

prtdiag -v
ifconfig -a

kstat hme:0:parameters:<param name>
kstat e1000g:0:parameters:<param name>

module:instance:name:statistics

# Solaris 11
netadm list

dladm show-phys
dladm show-link
dladm show-linkprop
dladm show-vnic
dladm show-etherstub

ipadm show-if
ipadm show-ifprop
ipadm show-addr
ipadm show-addrprop

ifconfig
system-config-network (GUI)
ifconfig ioscan -funC lan (list hardware)
lanscan -v (list configured)
ifconfig lan0 (individual)
ifconfig -a

entstat -d <interface>

lsdev -Cc if
lsdev -Cc tcpip

odmget -q "name=en0" CuAt

lsattr -EHl en0
displaying network interfaces
Configure network interface

ifconfig

# Solaris 11 - Automatic (using profiles)
netadm enable -p ncp Automatic
netcfg       (use by Automatic)

# Solaris 11 - Manual
netadm enable -p ncp DefaultFixed
netcfg

dladm create-vnic
dladm delete-vnic
dladm rename-link

dladm create-etherstub

ipadm create-ip net1
ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.0.110/24 net1/pfv
ipadm delete-ip
ipadm delete-addr

ifconfig ifconfig ifconfig <interface>

mktcpip (completely setup a network interface)
rmtcpip (remove all network interfaces)

# configure an interface
mktcpip -h aix1 -a 192.168.1.200 -m 255.255.255.0 -i en1 -g 192.168.0.10

-h - hostname assigned to interface
-a - ip address
-m - netmask
-i - interface name
-g - gateway ip address

# remove an interface
ifconfig en1 detach

ifconfig (configures IP address)

chdev (add aliases to network interface)

Configure network interface
Starting and stopping a network interface ifconfig qfe0 up
ifconfig qfe0 down
/sbin/ifup eth0
/sbin/ifdown eth0
/sbin/ifup eth0
/sbin/ifdown eth0

ifconfig lan0 up
ifconfig lan0 down

note: there is no "ifconfig -a" in hpux use lanscan then "ifconfig <interface>"

ifconfig en0 up
ifconfig en0 down
ifconfig en0 detach (remove)

Starting and stopping a network interface
Setting NIC speed ndd -set <device> <parm> <value> (dynamically)
/etc/system (edit and update then reboot - permanent)
mii-tool -F 100baseTx-FD eth0
ethtool -s eth1 speed 100 duplex full
ethtool -s eth1 speed 100 duplex full ndd -set <device> <parm> <value>
lanadmin -X <option> lan0
chdev -l ent0 -a media_speed=1000_Full_Duplex -P
chdev -l ent0 -a media_speed=Auto_Negotiation -P

Note:
entX - physical device
enX - frame type run on entX
Setting NIC speed
Change NIC parameters

ndd -get <device> <parm>

# List parameters
ndd -get /dev/hme \?
ndd -get /dev/e1000g0 \?
ndd -get /dev/ip \?
ndd -get /dev/tcp \?

mii-tool -v
ethtool eth1
ethtool -t eth0 online

sysctl -a | grep net*

ethtool eth0

sysctl -a |grep net*

lanadmin -> lan -> display

## options supported
ndd -get /dev/ip ?
ndd -get /dev/tcp ?
ndd -get /dev/arp ?
ndd -get /dev/udp ?

netstat -v
entstat -d <interface>

no -a
no -o "ipforwarding=1"

NIC speeds or Parameters
Display NIC statistics       netstat -i [-I interface]
netstat -s
netstat -i [-f inet]
netstat -s
entstat -d <interface>
Display network statistics
display MAC address ifconfig -a (as user root) ifconfig
system-config-network (GUI)
ifconfig lanscan netstat -ia display MAC address
Displaying network packets snoop -d <interface>

tcpdump -i <interface>

ethereal (needs to be installed)

tcpdump -i <interface>

ethereal (needs to be installed)

nettl -start
nettl -status all
nettl -tn pduin pduout -e ns_ls_driver -file /var/adm/LAN
nettl -stop

use netfmt to display the trace file

tcpdump -i <interface>
iptrace -i <interface> <output file>
ipreport (used with iptrace to view reports)

Note: you must stop the iptrace by using "kill -15"

Displaying network packets
default router /etc/defaultrouter

route add default <gateway>
route -p add default <gateway> (persist changes)

edit /etc/sysconfig/network

add: GATEWAY=<IP address>

edit /etc/network/interfaces

add: gateway <IP address>
/etc/rc.config.d/netconf route add 0 <gateway IP address>

Note: there is no file that holds the default router
default router
display routing table netstat -rn netstat -rn
route -n
netstat -rn
route -n
netstat -rn netstat -rn
netstat -r -f inet
lsattr -EHl inet0 -a route
display routing table
Test IPMP, Bonding

if_mpadm -d           (detach)
if_mpadm -r           (reattach)

tail /var/adm/messages

ifenslave -d bond0 eth1   (detach)
ifenslave bond0 eth1       (reattach)

cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

# create bonding
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

# modprobe
/etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf

# for bonding options - use BONDING_OPTS
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

# see bonding mode
cat /sys/class/net/bond0/bonding/mode

ifenslave -d bond0 eth1   (detach)
ifenslave bond0 eth1       (reattach)

cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

You buy an optional product called Auto-Port Aggragation. smitty etherchannel (creates, deletes and tests)

entstat -d ent0
Test IPMP, Bonding
change the hostname

change the following files:

/etc/nodename
/etc/hostname.<interface>
/etc/inet/hosts
/etc/inet/ipnodes
/etc/net - few files in here as well

# Solaris 11
svccfg -s system/identity:node listprop config/nodename

svcfg -s system/identity:node setprop config/nodename = astring: hostname
svcadm refresh system/identity:node
svcadm restart indentity:node

/etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/hosts

sysctl -a |grep hostname
/etc/hostname
/etc/hosts

sysctl -a |grep hostname
set_parms hostname (requires reboot) hostname <new hostname>
chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=<hostname>
change the hostname
setup DNS

/etc/resolv.conf

# Solaris 11 - You need to use the svccfg command
svccfg -s dns/client listprop config/nameserver
svccfg -s dns/client listprop config/search
svccfg -s name-service/switch listprop config/host
svccfg -s name-service/switch listprop config/password

svcprop <pattern>

Note: just use listprop on its own to view all options

svccfg -s "dns/client" setprop "config/nameserver = net_address: (192.168.0.1)"
svccfg -s "dns/client" setprop 'config/domain = astring: ("datadisk.co.uk")'
svccfg -s "name-service/switch" setprop 'config/host = astring: "file dns"'
svcadm refresh name-service/switch
svcadm refresh dns/client

/etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf setup DNS
Name service switch file (DNS client)

/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf

# Solaris 11 - you need to use the svccfg command
see above

/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/netsvc.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/irs.conf (may not be there)

chnamsv     (change name service)
rmnamsv     (remove a name service)
lsnamsv -C   (list name services)
Name service switch file (DNS client)
Flush DNS cache svcadm restart system/name-service-cache:default ## if installed
service nscd restart
  n/a netcdctrl -t dns -e hosts -f Flush DNS cache
Domain Name /etc/defaultdomain /etc/sysconfig/network  (HOSTNAME option)
/etc/resolv.conf

Note: for NIS use the NISDOMAIN option
/etc/host
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/rc.config.d/netconf domainname <domainname> Domain Name
Obtain IP Address routing route -n get <hostname>
traceroute
ip route get <IP address>
traceroute
ip route get <IP address>
traceroute
n/a route -n get <hostname> Obtain IP Address routing
Find Services on the network

Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1

NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1

NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1

Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1

NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1

NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -u <yp server> ypserv

Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1

NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1

NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -u <yp server> ypserv

Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1

NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1

NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1

Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1

NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1

NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1

Find Services on the network

Crash Dump

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Crash Dump

dumpadm -d <device>
coreadm

crash (used to analyse crash dumps)
adb (used to analyse crash dumps)

diskdump
netdump
kdump (part of kexec rpm)

/etc/kdump.conf (select where you want the dump to go)
service kdump start
chkconfig kdump on

## to crash the system
echo "c" > /proc/sysrq-trigger

crash (used to analyse crash dumps)

diskdump
netdump
kdump (part of kexec rpm)

/etc/kdump.conf (select where you want the dump to go)
service kdump start
chkconfig kdump on

## to crash the system
echo "c" > /proc/sysrq-trigger

crash (used to analyse crash dumps)

edit /stand/system

add either:
dump 2/0/1.5.0
dump lvol
dump none

# crash config file
/etc/rc.config.d/savecrash

 

sysdumpdev -l (list dump destination)
sysdumpdev -e (estimates dumpsize)
sysdumpdev -L (info)

sysdumpstart -p (start dump primary)
sysdumpstart -s (start dump secondary)

# set the dump device permanently
sysdumpdev -p <dump device> -P

# analyse dump file
echo "stat\n status\n t -m" | crash /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0

Crash Dump

Performance Monitoring and Diagnostics

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
CPU top (sunfreeware)
prstat
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
top
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
procinfo
oprofile
cat /proc/cpuinfo
top
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
procinfo
cat /proc/cpuinfo
top
sar
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
glance
sam

topas -P
topas -L  (logical partitions)
mpstat
sar -c
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
lparstat
ps
iostat -tT 1
tprof
curt

CPU
Memory prstat
vmstat
top
sar
free
vmstat
top
procinfo
slabtop
sar
cat /proc/meminfo
free
vmstat
top
procinfo
slabtop
sar
cat /proc/meminfo
top
vmstat
sar
sam
glance
topas
vmstat
sar -b
svmon
ps
ipcs -a
lockstat (version 4)
rmss
Memory
Network ndd
netstat
lsof
snoop
route
ethtool
mii-tool
netstat
lsof
tcpdump
ip
iptraf
nmap
ethtool
mii-tool
netstat
lsof
tcpdump
ip
iptraf
netstat
lanadmin
sam
glance
[ent|tok|fddi|atm]stat
netstat
netpmon (trcstop to stop trace)
Network I/O
Disk sar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
sar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
sar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
iostat
sar
sam
glance
topas -D   (disk)
topas -F   (filesystem)
iostat
sar -D
fcstat (fibre)
lvmstat
filemon (trcstop to stop)
fileplace

# disk stat history
chdev -l sys0 -a iostat=true
lsattr -HEl sys0 -a iostat
Disk I/O
Application truss -p <pid>
ppriv -D -e <command>
strace -p <pid> strace -p <pid> download and install tusc

tusc -p <pid>

topas
truss
sar
probevue
tprof
svmon -P <pid>

Application
NFS nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat
NFS
Process top
prstat
ps -ef
pargs <pid>
pcred <pid>
pfiles <pid>
pflags <pid>
pgrep <pattern>
pkill <pattern>
pmap <pid>
pldd <pid>
preap <pid>
prun <pid>
psig <pid>
pstack <pid>
pstop <pid>
ptime <pid>
ptree <pid>
pwait <pid>
pwdx<pid>
         

Kernel Modules and Parameters

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display loaded modules modinfo cat /proc/modules (more detailed)
lsmod
modinfo <module>

Location:
/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers

Config:
/etc/modprobe.conf
/etc/modprobe.d

cat /proc/modules (more detailed)
lsmod

Location:
/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers

Config:
/etc/modprobe.d/options
/etc/modprobe.d

kmadmin -k
genkex display loaded modules
load modules modload -p drv/<module name>
modprobe <module>
insmod
modprobe <module>
insmod
kmadmin -L <module name> n/a load modules
unload modules modunload -i <module number> modprobe -r <module>
rmmod
modprobe -r <module>
rmmod

kmadmin -U <module name>
kmadmin -u <module id>

n/a unload modules
set kernel parameters (tuning) /etc/system (edit and reboot) /etc/sysctl.conf (edit and update then reboot)
sysctl -p <filename>

sysctl -w param=value

No reboot (dynamically):
echo "250 32000 100 28" > /proc/sys/kernel/sem
echo "536870912" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
echo "4096" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
echo "2097152" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
etc.............................................

/etc/sysctl.conf (edit and update then reboot)
sysctl -p <filename>

sysctl -w param=value

No reboot (dynamically):
echo "250 32000 100 28" > /proc/sys/kernel/sem
echo "536870912" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
echo "4096" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
echo "2097152" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
etc.............................................

kcweb (11i)
kctune (11i only)
rebuild kernel (< 11i see below)

chdev -l sys0 -a <parameter>=<value>
no -a          (network)
vmo -a        (virtual memory)
nfso -a        (NFS)
ioo -a         (Input/Ouput) 
raso -a        (reliability, availability, serviceability)
schedo -a   (processor scheduler)

vi /etc/security/limits
cd /etc/tunables

tunchange, tundefault, tunsave, tunrestore, tuncheck

Note: most parameters are dynamically changed in AIX , for example memory segments are dynamically adjusted

set kernel parameters
display kernel parameters cat /etc/system
sysdef -i
sysctl -a
cat /etc/sysctl.conf

cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem
cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
etc...................................
sysctl -a
cat /etc/sysctl.conf

cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem
cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
etc...................................
kctune (11i only)
sysdef
kmtune
kmsystem
/usr/sam/lbin/getkinfo -f /stand/vmunix -o /tmp/kernel.data
lsattr -EHl sys0

Note: only a few kernel parameters can be changed
display kernel parameters
build kernel

edit and update file then reboot:
/etc/system

cd /usr/src/linux-2.5
edit Makefile (change EXTRAVERSION)
make mrproper
backup .config
make xconfig
make dep
make bzImage
make modules
move new kernel
make modules_install
change lilo/grub config file
reboot
 

cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -v -s system
edit system file
/usr/sbin/mk_kernel -s ./system
mv /stand/system /stand/system.old
mv /stand/vmunix /stand/vmunix.old
mv /stand/build/system /stand
mv /stand/build/vmunix_test /stand/vmunix
reboot

chdev -l sys0 -a <parameter>=<value>

Note: most parameters are dynamically changed in AIX , for example memory segments are dynamically adjusted
build kernel
interprocess communication ipcs -a ipcs -a ipcs -a ipcs -a ipcs -a interprocess communication

Services

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display services

svcs -a
svcs -l <service>
svcs -vx
inetadm -l

service --status-all There is no services or chkconfig command use the old fashioned way /etc/init.d/<service> There is no services or chkconfig command
use the old fashioned way /sbin/init.d/<service>
lssrc -a display services
start services svcadm enable nfs service nfs start startsrc -s <subsystem>
startsrc -g <group>
start services
stop services svcadm disable nfs service nfs stop stopsrc -s <subsystem>
stopsrc -g <group>
stop services
reload service svcadm refresh nfs
svcadm clear nfs (changes state)
service nfs reload refresh -s <subsystem> reload service
restart service svcadm restart nfs service nfs restart stopsrc -s <subsystem>
startsrc -s <subsystem>
restart service
service status svcs nfs service nfs staus lssrc -a service status
service dependencies svcs -d network n/a n/a service dependencies
service dependants svcs -D network n/a n/a service dependants
Service notifications

# change or add
svccfg

# verify or confirm
svcprop

     
service logging, etc /var/svc/log
/var/svc/manifest
/lib/svc/method
/etc/svc/repository.db
/system/volatile/svc_nonpersist.db
n/a /var/adm/ras
/etc/syslog.conf
/etc/rc.tcpip
service logging, etc
change service startup n/a chkconfig --levels 2345 nfs on n/a change service startup
Add a new service n/a

# Create your stop/start
# script in /etc/init.d

chkconfig --add <script>

   

Patching / Software

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display installed patches showrev -p
patchadd -p
    swlist -l bundle
swlist -l product
swlist -l patch
instfix -ia display installed patches
adding patch patchadd
patchadd -M <dir> (multiple patches)
patch -p1 <patch>

zcat patch46.gz | patch -p1

Note: -p = # of path stripping
 


swcopy (install patch into depot)
swinstall (install patch from depot)

Note: the swagentd daemon must be running

instfix -k adding patch
removing patch patchrm patch -R -p1 <patch>   swremove installp -r removing patch
display installed packages pkginfo (all packages)
pkginfo -l (single package)
pkgchk -l -p <file> (file belongs)

# NEW IPS
pkg list (all packages)
pkg info (single package)
pkg search (find packages and files)
rpm -qa (all packages)
rpm -q (single package)
rpm -qf (file belongs)
rpm -qi <package> (very detailed)
dpkg -l
dpkg -S <search string> (search)
dpkg -S <filename> (file belongs)
dpkg -s <package> (status)
dpkg -p <package> (detailed)
swlist -l bundle <bundle>
swlist -l product <product>

## check a package
swlist -s <full_path/software>

lslpp -L all (all filesets)
lslpp -L <package> (single fileset)
lslpp -w <file> (file belongs)
lslpp -ha (history of filesets)

rpm -qa (all packages)
rpm -q (single package)
rpm -qf (file belongs)
rpm -qi <package> (very detailed)

oslevel -g (install packkages above os level)

whereis <filename>
which_fileset <filename>

display installed packages
adding package pkgadd

# NEW IPS
pkg install
pkg update
rpm -Uhv (updates/installs if not already)
rpm -ihv (install)
dpkg -i <package> swinstall
swinstall -s <full_path/software>

installp -a
installp -c (cleanup after failed install)

rpm -i

geninstall (generic installer: installp, RPM, etc)

adding package
removing packages

pkgrm

# NEW IPS
pkg uninstall <package>

rpm -e <package> dpkg -r <package> (do not remove config files)
dpkg -P <package> (remove config files)
swremove

installp -u (commited packages)
installp -r (applied packages)

rpm -e <package>

geninstall -u <package>

removing packages
verify package

pkginfo -l
pkginfo -p

# NEW IPS
pkg publisher
pkg verify <package>

rpm -V <package> n/a swverity <fileset> (see /var/adm/sw/swagent.log) lppchk -v

rpm -V <package>
verify package
List files in package pkgchk -l <package> | grep -i pathname

# NEW IPS
pkg contents <package>
rpm -ql <package> dpkg -L <package> (list files) swlist -l file <product>

lslpp -f <fileset>

rpm -ql <package>

List files in package
Other package commands # NEW IPS
pkg history
pkg purge-history
pkg freeze
pkg unfreeze
pkg fix
pkg refresh
pkg publisher
         
Package directory /var/sadm /var/lib/rpm /var/lib/dpkg/info /var/adm/sw

/usr/lpp

/var/lib/rpm

Package directory
List libraries required for binary program ldd <file> ldd <file> ldd <file> chatr <file> ldd <file> List libraries required for binary program

Accounts

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display users cat /etc/passwd

logins -x [-p]
cat /etc/passwd
system-config-users (GUI)
cat /etc/passwd cat /etc/passwd
logins -x
cat /etc/passwd

lsuser -f ALL   (detailed)
display users
create a user

useradd

# user defaults
/usr/sadm/defadduser

useradd
system-config-users (GUI)
useradd useradd
sam
mkuser
useradd
create a user
remove a user userdel userdel
system-config-users (GUI)
userdel userdel
sam
rmuser
userdel
remove a user
modify a user usermod usermod
system-config-users (GUI)
usermod usermod
sam
chuser -a
usermod
passwd -f
passwd -s
chfn <username>
chfn <username><shell>
modify a user
change user password passwd passwd passwd passwd passwd
pwdadm
pwdck -t ALL
change user password
create a group groupadd groupadd groupadd groupadd mkgroup <group name> create a group
remove a group groupdel groupdel groupdel groupdel rmgroup <group name> remove a group
modify a goup groupmod groupmod groupmod groupmod chgroup <attribute><group name> modify a goup
password files /etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/tcb/files/auth/r/root (trusted system)
/etc/security/passwd password files
useful user commands id -a
whoami
who
w
finger
logins -p
id -a
whoami
who
w
finger
id -a
whoami
who
w
finger
id
whoami
who
w
uptime (displays # of users logged in)
finger
id
whoami
who
w
uptime (displays # of users logged in)
finger

# License information
lslicense
chlicense

# Maximum number of processes for a user
lsattr -D -l sys0 -a maxuproc
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=<number>
useful user commands
useful group commands groups
setpgrp
newgrp
groups groups groups
setprivgrp
groups
setgroups
lsgroup ALL
useful group commands
Password Policy /etc/security/policy.conf
/etc/default/passwd
/etc/login.defs        
Password Aging passwd chage -l <user>
chage <options> <user>
       

NFS

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
NFS Daemons server: mountd, nfsd
client: statd, lockd
server: rpc.mountd,nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd

server: rpc.mountd,nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd

server: rpc.mountd, nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd

server: rpc.mountd, nfsd
client: rpc.statd, rpc.lockd

NFS Daemons
NFS files /etc/dfs/dfstab
/etc/dfs/sharetab
/etc/rmtab
/etc/exports
/var/lib/nfs/etab
/var/lib/nfs/xtab
/etc/exports
/var/lib/nfs/etab
/var/lib/nfs/xtab
/etc/exports
/etc/xtab
/etc/exports
/etc/xtab
NFS files
List nfs clients that have a remote mount /etc/rmtab /var/lib/nfs/rmtab /var/lib/nfs/rmtab /etc/rmtab /etc/xtab List nfs clients that have a remote mount
display nfs shares dfshares
showmount -e localhost
showmount -e localhost showmount -e localhost showmount -e localhost exportfs
showmount -e localhost
display nfs shares
create nfs share /etc/dfs/dfstab (edit and add share)
share <path>

## dfstab example
share -F nfs -d "jumpstart" /export/jumpstart
redhat-config-nfs (GUI)

/etc/exports (edit and add share)
/sbin/service nfs reload

## /etc/exports example
/export *(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_root_squash,sync)
/etc/exports (edit and add share, see below example)
exportfs -rav (export the shares)

/etc/init.d/portmap restart
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

## /etc/exports example
/export *(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_root_squash,sync)

/etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
/etc/exports (edit and add share)
exportfs -a

mknfsexp -d <directory>
mknfsmnt

shareall
create nfs share
uncreate nfs share unshare <path>
/etc/dfs/dfstab (edit and remove share)
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
/sbin/service nfs reload
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
exportfs -rav (export the shares)
/etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
exportfs -au (unshare all)
exportfs -u /home/vallep
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
rmnfsexp  -d <directory> (unshares and removes from file)

exportfs -u <filesystem>
unshareall

uncreate nfs share
start/change nfs daemons

/etc/init.d/nfs.server start
/etc/init.d/nfs.client start

svcadm enable nfs/server
svcadm disable nfs/server

/sbin/service nfs start /etc/init.d/portmap start
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.core start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.client start
mknfs
chnfs

startsrc -s nfsd
startsrc -s rpc.mountd
start/change nfs daemons
stop nfs daemons /etc/init.d/nfs.server stop
/etc/init.d/nfs.client stop
/sbin/service nfs stop /etc/init.d/portmap stop
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.client stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.core stop
rmnfs

stopsrc -s nfsd
stopsrc -s rpc.mountd
stop nfs daemons
nfs status ps -ef|grep < nfs daemons> /sbin/service nfs status /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server status ps -ef | grep <nfs daemons> lssrc -a |grep -i nfs nfs status
nfs reload shareall /sbin/service nfs reload exportfs -rav (export the shares) exportfs -a exportfs -av nfs reload
nfs performanace nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat nfsstat nfs performanace
nfs Options n/a cat /var/lib/nfs/etab cat /var/lib/nfs/etab n/a nfso -a
nfso -o <option>=<value>

exportfs (display options)
nfs Options
solaris/redhat mount problems (nfs v3 to v4) ## Make sure you use NFS version 3
mount -F nfs -o vers=3 <mount> <mountpoint>
n/a n/a n/a n/a solaris/redhat mount problems (nfs v3 to v4)

NTP

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Time daemons

xntpd

ntpd

ntpd xntpd xntpd Time daemons
ntp setup

# Solaris 8
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/ntp.server
/etc/ntp.client

/etc/rc2.d/xntpd [start|stop]

# Solaris 10
/etc/inet/ntp.server
/etc/inet/ntp.client

svcadm enable ntpd

/etc/ntp.conf (edit with ntp servers)
dateconfig (GUI)

chkconfig --list ntpd
chkconfig --level 2345 ntpd on
/sbin/service ntpd start

/etc/default/ntp
/etc/ntp.conf

/etc/init.d/ntp [start|stop|restart]

/etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons (set XNTPD to 1)
/etc/ntp.conf

/etc/ntp.conf

startsrc -s xntpd
stopsrc -s xntpd

lslpp -L all|grep xntpd

ntp setup
ntp daemon options /lib/svc/method/xntp /etc/sysconfig/ntpd /etc/default/ntp /etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons

startsrc -s xntpd -a "-x"

/etc/rc.tcpip

ntp daemon options
NTP Trace commands ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntpdate (set the date)
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpdate
NTP Trace commands

Log Files

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
messages /var/adm/messages /var/log/messages /var/log/messages /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log /var/adm/ras
messages
syslog /var/log/syslog /var/log/syslog /var/log/syslog /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log /var/adm/ras
syslog
mail   /var/log/mail /var/log/mail.* /var/adm/syslog/mail.log /usr/spool/mqueue/syslog
mail
cron /var/cron/log /var/log/cron /var/log/cron.log /var/adm/cron/log /var/adm/cron/log
cron
boot /var/adm/messages
dmesg
/var/log/boot
dmesg
/var/log/boot
dmesg
/var/adm/syslog/syslog.log
dmesg
/var/adm/ras

alog -o -t boot
alog -o -t console
alog -L  (list all the logs available)
boot
Error logging logger logger logger logger

/usr/lib/errdemon -l (display attributes)
/usr/lib/errdemon (start error logging)
/usr/lib/errstop (stop error logging)

# use with above errorlog file
errpt (summary errorlog report)
errpt -a (detailed errorlog report)
errpt -j <identifier> (single errorlog report)

errclear (clears errorlog)
errclear -d <class><days> (clears class errors)

errlogger "message upto 230 chars"

Error logging

Security

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Checking the passwd file pwck pwck pwck pwck
pwdck -t ALL
usrck -t ALL
Checking the passwd file
checking the group file grpck grpck grpck grpck grpck checking the group file
console login (allow/deny)

# Solaris 10 (no reboot)
/etc/default/login

# Solaris 11 (no reboot)
/etc/default/login
/etc/user_attr (see below)

rolemod -K type=normal root

# No reboot required
/etc/securetty
# No reboot required
/etc/securetty
# No reboot required
/etc/securetty

Note: you may need to create this file if it does not exist
# No reboot required
/etc/security/user

chsec -f /etc/security/user -s root
console login (allow/deny)

Misc

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
startup

eeprom

setenv boot-device

grub (GUI)
lilo (text based)
grub (GUI) setboot -p <primary path>
setboot -a <alternate path>

# autoboot sequnce
setboot -b [on|off]
bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1 startup
shutdown

shutdown -i5 -g0 -y (power down)
shutdown -i6 -g0 -y (reboot)
shutdown -i0 -g0 -y (OK prompt)

reboot -- -r (reboot/reconfigure)

touch /reconfigure

shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -f (fast reboot no fsck)
shutdown -F (force fsck)

shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -P (power off)

touch /forcefsck

# edit /etc/default/rcS change below so
# you dont have to hang around
FSCKFIX=yes

shutdown -h now (halt)
shutdown -r now(reboot)
shutdown -F (fast shutdown)
shutdown -Fr (fast shutdown and reboot)
shutdown
Change run level halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
uadmin
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
init
reboot
shutdown
init
shutdown
reboot
telinit
halt
Change run level
init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6


0 - shutdown
1 - single user
2 - n/a
3 - Multi-user
4 - n/a
5 - power off
6 - reboot

 

# change default
vi /etc/inittab


0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (no networking)
3 - multiuser (networking)
4 - unused
5 - GUI
6 - reboot

 

# change default
vi /etc/inittab


0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (default)
3 - same as 2
4 - same as 2
5 - same as 2
6 - reboot



# change default - change all the telinit
vi /etc/event.d/rc-default


0 - halt
1 - single users
2 - multiuser (networking)
3 - multiuser (networking, NFS, and CDE GUI) (default)
4 - multiuser (netwrking, NFS, and VUE GUI)
5 - n/a
6 - n/a

 

# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab


0 - reserved
1 - reserved
2 - multiuser mode with NFS
3 - user defined
4 - user defined
5 - user defined
6 - user defined
7-9 - user defined

# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab

init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Startup options

boot <option>

# Options
-s single user
-a interactive
-x no device drivers (used in clustering)
-r reconfigure devices
-m milestone

single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt

single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage

single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt

single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage

interact with IPL? Y

# single user
ISL> hpux -is

# Logical volume maintanence mode
ISL> hpux -lm

# No quroum check
ISL> hpux -lq

Based on 9114-275 workstation

1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker


Startup options
startup scripts /etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/sbin/init.d
/etc/rc.config.d (startup config files)

/sbin/rc0.d - /sbin/rc6.d

/etc/rc.d
/etc/rc.d/init.d

/etc/rc.d/rc2.d - rc9.d

/etc/rc.* (config files for auto-starting)

also uses the System Resource Controller

startup scripts
boot prompt commands

boot
printenv
setenv
banner
devalias
show-devs
show-pci-devs-all
probe-scsi-all
probe-fcal-all
probe-pci
watch-net-all
reset-all

F10 or F12 F10 or F12 interact with IPL? Y

Based on a 9114-275 workstation

1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker

boot prompt commands
Boot process

Phases:

  • Boot PROM: displays system information, run POST, load bootblk, locate ufsboot
  • Boot Programs: bootblk loads and executes the ufsboot
  • Kernel Initialization: ufsboot loads and executes the core kernel, initializes core kernel data structures, loads other kernel modules based on the /etc/system file, starts /sbin/init program
  • init: starts other processes based on the /etc/inittab file

Boot sequence

  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /etc/grub.conf and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - reads /etc/inittab and runs /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script

Boot sequence

  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /boot/grub/menu.lst and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - runs the /etc/event.d/rc-default script

Phases:

  1. PDC - processor-dependent code; executes and performs self-tests
  2. ISL - initial system loader; loads the secondary system loader hpux
  3. HPUX - is the secondary system loader and loads the kernel /stand/vmunix, then hands over to the kernel
  4. KERNEL - swapper processes are started by the kernel then starts the init process
  5. INIT - reads /etc/inittab

Phases:

  • Read Only Storage (ROS): check the system board, perform POST, locate and load boot image, begin system initialization and execute phase 1 of the /etc/rc.boot script
  • Base Device Configuration: start configuration manager to configue base devices
  • System Boot: start init process phase 2, switch to hard-disk root filesystem, start other processes defined by /etc/inittab and execute phase 3 of the /etc/rc.boot script
Boot process
Boot Environments (BE) bootadm list-archive
bootadm update-archive
bootadm list-menu
bootadm set-menu <option>

beadm create
beadm rename
beadm activate
beadm list
beadm destroy
         
determine the run level who -r runlevel
who -r
runlevel
who -r
who -r who -r determine the run level
obtain default run level cat /etc/inittab cat /etc/inittab /etc/event.d/rc-default /etc/inittab /etc/inittab obtain default run level
list locale locale -a locale -a locale -a locale -a locale -a list locale
start xwindows n/a startx (shorthand of below)
initx (lots of parms)
  n/a n/a start xwindows
initialize system sys-unconfig     set_parms [initial|hostname|ip_address|timezone]

Note: set_parms is in /sbin
install_assist initialize system
Timezone /etc/TIMEZONE
/etc/default/init
/etc/sysconfig/clock
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/timezone
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/TIMEZONE /etc/environment
/etc/profile
Timezone

 

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